BIBO2SPAR, an RDF Mapping of BIBO to the SPAR Ontologies

In the previous blog post, I made a textual comparison between BIBO v1.3, the Bibliographic Ontology developed by Bruce D’Arcus and Frédérick Giasson, and FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology.

In this post, I wish to introduce our RDF mapping of BIBO (version 1.3, undated, downloaded from to the SPAR (Semantic Publishing and Referencing) Ontologies, particularly to FaBiO (version 1.1, dated 23-06-2011, downloadable from, to permit cross-walk between these two systems.

The mapping takes the form of an alphabetical listing of all BIBO classes, object properties and data properties, for each of which is provided a SKOS mapping to equivalent classes, object properties or data properties in FaBiO or one of the other SPAR ontologies, or to relevant terms in FRBR, PRISM, FOAF, SKOS or Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Terms, where such a mapping is possible. Where it is not, a note is included to explain why.

Note that most of the classes in FaBiO are arranged according to the FRBR data model into fabio:Works (69 sub-classes), fabio:Expressions (92 sub-classes), fabio:Manifestations (10 sub-classes) and fabio:Items (4 sub-classes). 38 of the BIBO classes are sub-classes of bibo:Document, which roughly corresponds to fabio:Expression.

Note also that, because of the ambiguity and multiplicity of meanings of the word “document”, FaBiO intentionally lacks the class fabio:Document, using instead the generic term fabio:Expression and more specific sub-classes. In contrast, BIBO classifies things as diverse as films, slideshows and web pages as sub-classes of bibo:Document.

Note further that BIBO contains classes that describe social events, such as bibo:Interview and bibo:Performance, and that describe specific legal documents such as bibo:LegalDecision and bibo:Legislation. These have no equivalents in the SPAR Ontologies.

The mapping document, BIBO2SPAR, is written as validated RDF in Turtle format, and is available at

In the mappings, the BIBO class or property name is given on the left of each line, followed by the SKOS mapping relationship and the equivalent class or property name used in the SPAR ontologies, e.g.

bibo:AudioDocument skos:exactMatch fabio:AudioDocument .

This mapping document has been prepared by and is copyright © David Shotton, University of Oxford, and Silvio Peroni, University of Bologna, 23 June 2011, and is published as open data under a Creative Commons 2.5 attribution license.

Please contact <> or <> for further information.

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2 Responses to BIBO2SPAR, an RDF Mapping of BIBO to the SPAR Ontologies

  1. Pingback: Comparison of BIBO and FaBiO | JISC Open Citations

  2. Pingback: JISC Open Citations Project – Final Project Blog Post | JISC Open Citations

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